Universal Health Coverage is one of the Sustainable Development Goal targets. But coverage without quality health services limits benefits to populations. Performance-based financing programs (PBF) use strategic purchasing of services to expand coverage and promote quality by measuring quality and rewarding good performance. The widespread presence of PBF programs in lower and middle-income countries provide an opportunity to introduce and test new approaches for measuring and improving quality at scale. This article describes four approaches to improve quality of health services at scale in PBF programs. These approaches looked at structural and process measures of quality as well as outcome measures like patient satisfaction. Three types of tools were used in these approaches: clinical vignettes, competency tests and patient satisfaction surveys. Specific tools within each of the approaches are used in Kyrgyzstan, Cambodia, Democratic Republic of Congo and the Republic of Congo.